Summary of Product Characteristics
1. Name of the Medical ProductReagila 1.5 mg hard capsules Reagila 3 mg hard capsules Reagila 4.5 mg hard capsules Reagila 6 mg hard capsules
2. Qualitative and Quantitative CompositionReagila 1.5 mg hard capsules Each hard capsule contains cariprazine hydrochloride corresponding to 1.5 mg cariprazine. Reagila 3 mg hard capsules Each hard capsule contains cariprazine hydrochloride corresponding to 3 mg cariprazine. Excipients with known effect Each hard capsule contains 0.0003 mg Allura red AC (E 129). Reagila 4.5 mg hard capsules Each hard capsule contains cariprazine hydrochloride corresponding to 4.5 mg cariprazine. Excipients with known effect Each hard capsule contains 0.0008 mg Allura red AC (E 129). Reagila 6 mg hard capsules Each hard capsule contains cariprazine hydrochloride corresponding to 6 mg cariprazine. Excipients with known effect Each hard capsule contains 0.0096 mg Allura red AC (E 129). For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
3. Pharmaceutical FormHard capsule Reagila 1.5 mg hard capsules ‘Size 4’ (approximately 14.3 mm in length) hard gelatin capsule with white opaque cap and white opaque body imprinted with “GR 1.5” on the capsule body with black ink. The capsules are filled with white to yellowish white powder mixture. Reagila 3 mg hard capsules ‘Size 4’ (approximately 14.3 mm in length) hard gelatin capsule with green opaque cap and white opaque body imprinted with “GR 3” on the capsule body with black ink. The capsules are filled with white to yellowish white powder mixture. Reagila 4.5 mg hard capsules ‘Size 4’ (approximately 14.3 mm in length) hard gelatin capsule with green opaque cap and green opaque body imprinted with “GR 4.5” on the capsule body with white ink. The capsules are filled with white to yellowish white powder mixture. Reagila 6 mg hard capsules ‘Size 3’ (approximately 15.9 mm in length) hard gelatin capsule with purple opaque cap and white opaque body imprinted with “GR 6” on the capsule body with black ink. The capsules are filled with white to yellowish white powder mixture.
4. Clinical Particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications
Reagila is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients.
4.2 Posology and method of administration
The recommended starting dose of cariprazine is 1.5 mg once daily. Thereafter the dose can be increased slowly in 1.5 mg increments to a maximum dose of 6 mg/day, if needed. The lowest effective dose should be maintained according to the clinical judgement of the treating physician. Because of the long half-life of cariprazine and its active metabolites, changes in dose will not be fully reflected in plasma for several weeks. Patients should be monitored for adverse reactions and treatment response for several weeks after starting cariprazine and after each dosage change (see section 5.2).
Switching from other antipsychotics to cariprazine
When switching from another antipsychotic to cariprazine gradual cross-titration should be considered, with gradual discontinuation of the previous treatment while cariprazine treatment is initiated.
Switching to another antipsychotic from cariprazine
When switching to another antipsychotic from cariprazine, no gradual cross-titration is needed, the new antipsychotic should be initiated in its lowest dose while cariprazine is discontinued. It should be considered that plasma concentration of cariprazine and its active metabolites will decline by 50% in ~1 week (see section 5.2).
No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (Creatinine Clearance (CrCl) ≥ 30 mL/min and < 89 mL/min). Safety and efficacy of cariprazine have not been evaluated in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl < 30 mL/min). Use of cariprazine is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (see section 5.2).
No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score between 5‑9). Safety and efficacy of cariprazine have not been evaluated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score between 10 and 15). Use of cariprazine is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see section 5.2).
Available data in elderly patients aged ≥65 years treated with cariprazine are not sufficient to determine whether or not they respond differently from younger patients (see section 5.2). Dose selection for an elderly patient should be more cautious.
The safety and efficacy of cariprazine in children and adolescents aged less than 18 years have not been established. No data are available.
Method of administration
Reagila is for oral use, to be taken once daily at the same time of the day with or without food.
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
Concomitant administration of strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (see section 4.5).
Concomitant administration of strong or moderate CYP3A4 inducers (see section 4.5).
4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use
Suicidal ideation and behaviour
The possibility of suicidality (suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and completed suicide) is inherent in psychotic illnesses and, generally, it is reported early after initiation or switch of antipsychotic therapy. Close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany antipsychotic therapy.
Akathisia and restlessness is a frequently occurring adverse reaction of antipsychotics. Akathisia is a movement disorder characterized by a feeling of inner restlessness and a compelling need to be in constant motion, as well as by actions such as rocking while standing or sitting, lifting the feet as if marching on the spot, and crossing and uncrossing the legs while sitting. As cariprazine causes akathisia and restlessness, it should be used cautiously in patients who are prone to or already exhibit symptoms of akathisia. Akathisia develops early in treatment. Therefore close monitoring in the first phase of treatment is important. Prevention includes slow up-titration; treatment measures include slight down-titration of cariprazine or anti-EPS medication. The dose can be modified based on individual response and tolerability (see section 4.8).
Tardive dyskinesia is a syndrome consisting of potentially irreversible, rhythmical, involuntary movements, predominantly of the tongue and/or face that can develop in patients treated with antipsychotics. If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient treated with cariprazine, discontinuation should be considered.
If prescribed to patients with Parkinson’s disease, antipsychotic medicinal products may exacerbate the underlying disease and worsen symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Physicians should, therefore, weigh the risks versus the benefits when prescribing cariprazine to patients with Parkinson’s disease.
In the preclinical studies of cariprazine lens opacity/cataract was detected in dogs (see sections 4.8 and 5.3). However, a causal relationship between lenticular changes / cataracts observed in human studies and cariprazine use has not been established. Nevertheless, patients who would develop symptoms potentially related to cataract should be advised to ophthalmologic examination and re-evaluated for treatment continuation.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)
A potentially fatal symptom complex referred to as neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with antipsychotic treatment. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, elevated serum creatine phosphokinase levels, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis) and acute renal failure. If a patient develops signs and symptoms indicative of NMS, or presents with unexplained high fever without additional clinical manifestations of NMS, cariprazine must be discontinued immediately.
Seizures and convulsions
Cariprazine should be used cautiously in patients with history of seizures or with conditions that potentially lower the seizure threshold.
Elderly patients with dementia
Cariprazine has not been studied in elderly patients with dementia and is not recommended to treat elderly patients with dementia due to increased risk of overall mortality.
Risk of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA)
An approximately 3-fold increased risk of cerebrovascular adverse reactions has been seen in randomised placebo controlled clinical trials in the dementia population with some atypical antipsychotics. The mechanism for this increased risk is not known. An increased risk cannot be excluded for other antipsychotics or other patient populations. Cariprazine should be used with caution in patients with risk factors for stroke.
Blood pressure changes
Cariprazine can cause orthostatic hypotension as well as hypertension (see section 4.8). Cariprazine should be used with caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease predisposing to blood pressure changes. Blood pressure should be monitored.
QT prolongation can develop in patients treated with antipsychotics.
With cariprazine no QT interval prolongation was detected compared to placebo in a clinical trial designed to assess QT prolongation (see section 5.1). In clinical trials, only a few, non-serious, QT-prolongations have been reported with cariprazine (see section 4.8). Therefore, cariprazine should be used cautiously in patients with known cardiovascular disease or in patients with a family history of QT prolongation and in patients treated with medicinal products that might cause QT prolongation (see section 5.1).
Venous thromboembolism (VTE)
Cases of venous thromboembolism have been reported with antipsychotic medicinal products. Since patients treated with antipsychotics often present with acquired risk factors for VTE, all possible risk factors for VTE should be identified before and during treatment with cariprazine and preventive measures undertaken.
Hyperglycaemia and diabetes mellitus
Patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus (e.g. obesity, family history of diabetes) who are starting treatment with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for serum glucose levels. In clinical trials, glucose-related adverse reactions have been reported with cariprazine (see section 5.1).
Women of childbearing potential
Women of childbearing potential must use highly effective contraception while taking cariprazine and at least for 10 weeks after stopping treatment (see sections 4.5 and 4.6). Women using systemically acting hormonal contraceptives should add a second barrier method.
Significant weight gain has been observed with the use of cariprazine. Patients should have their weight monitored regularly (see section 4.8).
Reagila 3 mg, 4.5 mg and 6 mg hard capsules contain Allura red AC (E 129), which may cause allergic reactions.
4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Potential for other medicinal products to affect cariprazine
Metabolism of cariprazine and its major active metabolites, desmethyl cariprazine (DCAR) and didesmethyl cariprazine (DDCAR), is mediated mainly by CYP3A4 with a minor contribution of CYP2D6.
Ketoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, caused two fold increase in plasma exposure for total cariprazine (sum of cariprazine and its active metabolites) during short-term (4 days) co‑administration, either if unbound or unbound+bound moieties considered.
Due to the long half-life of the active moieties of cariprazine a further increase in plasma exposure of total cariprazine can be expected during longer co-administration. Therefore, co-administration of cariprazine with strong or moderate inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g. boceprevir, clarithromycin, cobicistat, indinavir, itraconazole, ketoconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, posaconazole, ritonavir, saquinavir, telaprevir, telithromycin, voriconazole, diltiazem, erythromycin, fluconazole verapamil) is contraindicated (see section 4.3). Consumption of grapefruit juice should be avoided.
Co-administration of cariprazine with strong and moderate inducers of CYP3A4 may result in a significant decrease in total cariprazine exposure, therefore the co-administration of cariprazine and strong or moderate CYP3A4 inducers (e.g. carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, rifampicin, St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum), bosentan, efavirenz, etravirine, modafinil, nafcillin) is contraindicated (see section 4.3).
CYP2D6 mediated pathway plays a minor role in the metabolism of cariprazine, the major pathway is via CYP3A4 (see section 5.2). Therefore CYP2D6 inhibitors are unlikely to have a clinically relevant effect on cariprazine metabolism.
Potential for cariprazine to affect other medicinal products
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates
Cariprazine is a P-gp inhibitor in vitro at its theoretical maximum intestinal concentration. The clinical consequences of this effect is not fully understood, however the use of P-gp substrates with narrow therapeutic index such as dabigatran and digoxin could require extra monitoring and dose adjustment.
It is currently unknown whether cariprazine may reduce the effectiveness of systemically acting hormonal contraceptives, and therefore women using systemically acting hormonal contraceptives should add a second barrier method.
Given the primary central nervous system effects of cariprazine, Reagila should be used with caution in combination with other centrally acting medicinal products and alcohol.
4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation
Women of childbearing potential/contraception
Women of childbearing potential must be advised to avoid pregnancy while on Reagila. Female patients of child-bearing potential must use highly effective contraceptive methods during treatment and for at least 10 weeks following the last dose of Reagila. It is currently unknown if cariprazine may reduce the effectiveness of systemically acting hormonal contraceptives and therefore women using systemically acting hormonal contraceptives should add a barrier method (see section 4.5).
There are no or limited amount of data from the use of cariprazine in pregnant women.
Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity including developmental malformations in rats (see section 5.3).
Reagila is not recommended during pregnancy and in women of childbearing potential not using effective contraception. After discontinuation of cariprazine treatment contraception should be used for at least 10 weeks due to the slow elimination of active moieties.
Neonates exposed to antipsychotics (including cariprazine) during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk of adverse reactions including extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms that may vary in severity and duration following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress or feeding disorder. These complications have varied in severity; while in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, in other cases, neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization. Consequently, newborns should be monitored carefully.
It is unknown whether cariprazine or its major active metabolites are excreted in human milk. Cariprazine and its metabolites are excreted in milk of rats during lactation (see section 5.3). A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded. Breast-feeding should be discontinued during treatment with cariprazine.
The effect of cariprazine on human fertility has not been evaluated. In rat studies lower female fertility and conception indices were observed (see section 5.3).
4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines
Cariprazine has minor or moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including motor vehicles, until they are reasonably certain that therapy with Reagila does not affect them adversely.
4.8 Undesirable effects
Summary of the safety profile
The most frequently reported ADRs with cariprazine in the dose range (1.5‑6 mg) were akathisia (19%) and parkinsonism (17.5%). Most events were mild to moderate in severity.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) based upon pooled data from cariprazine schizophrenia studies are shown by system organ class and by preferred term.
Adverse reactions are ranked by frequency, the most frequent first, using the following convention: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000) very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, adverse reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.
Adverse drug reactions occurring in patients with schizophrenia
1Sleep disorders: Insomnia, Abnormal dreams/nightmare, Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, Dyssomnia, Hypersomnia, Initial insomnia, Middle insomnia, Nightmare, Sleep disorder, Somnambulism, Terminal insomnia
2Akathisia: Akathisia, Psychomotor hyperactivity, Restlessness
3Parkinsonism: Akinesia, Bradykinesia, Bradyphrenia, Cogwheel rigidity, Extrapyramidal disorder, Gait disturbance, Hypokinesia, Joint stiffness, Tremor, Masked facies, Muscle rigidity, Musculoskeletal stiffness, Nuchal rigidity, Parkinsonism
4Dystonia: Blepharospasm, Dystonia, Muscle tightness, Oromandibular dystonia, Torticollis, Trismus
5Other extrapyramidal diseases and abnormal movement disorders: Balance disorder, Bruxism, Drooling, Dysarthria, Gait deviation, Glabellar reflex abnormal, Hyporeflexia, Movement disorder, Restless legs syndrome, Salivary hypersecretion, Tongue movement disturbance
6Dyskinesia: Choreoathetosis, Dyskinesia, Grimacing, Oculogyric crisis, Protrusion tongue
Description of selected adverse reactions
Development of cataracts was observed in cariprazine non‑clinical studies (see section 5.3). Therefore, cataract formation was closely monitored with slit lamp examinations in the clinical studies and patients with existing cataracts were excluded. During the schizophrenia clinical development program of cariprazine, few cataract cases were reported, characterized with minor lens opacities with no visual impairment (13/3192; 0.4%). Some of these patients had confounding factors. The most commonly reported ocular adverse event was blurred vision (placebo: 1/683; 0.1%, cariprazine: 22/2048; 1.1%).
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)
In the short term studies the incidence of EPS was observed in 27%; 11.5%; 30.7% and 15.1% in patients treated with cariprazine, placebo, risperidone and aripiprazole respectively. Akathisia was reported in 13.6%; 5.1%; 9.3% and 9.9% in patients treated with cariprazine, placebo, risperidone and aripiprazole respectively. Parkinsonism was experienced in 13.6%; 5.7%; 22.1% and 5.3% in patients treated with cariprazine, placebo, risperidone and aripiprazole respectively. Dystonia was observed in 1.8%; 0.2%; 3.6% and 0.7% in patients on cariprazine, placebo, risperidone and aripiprazole, respectively.
In the placebo-controlled part of the long-term maintenance of effect study EPS was 13.7% in the cariprazine group compared to 3.0% in the placebo treated patients. Akathisia was reported in 3.9% in patients treated with cariprazine, versus 2.0% in the placebo group. Parkinsonism was experienced in 7.8% and 1.0% in cariprazine and placebo group respectively.
In the negative symptom study EPS was reported in 14.3% in the cariprazine group and 11.7% in the risperidone treated patients. Akathisia was reported in 10.0% in patients treated with cariprazine and 5.2% in the risperidone group. Parkinsonism was experienced in 5.2% and 7.4% in cariprazine and risperidone treated patients respectively. Most EPS cases were mild to moderate in intensity and could be handled with common anti-EPS medicinal products. The rate of discontinuation due to EPS related ADRs was low.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE)
Cases of venous thromboembolism, including cases of pulmonary embolism and cases of deep vein thrombosis have been reported with antipsychotics – Frequency unknown.
Elevated liver transaminases
Elevated liver transaminases (ALT, AST) are frequently observed with antipsychotic treatment. In the cariprazine clinical studies the incidence of ALT, AST elevation ADRs occurred in 2.2% of cariprazine-, 1.6% of risperidone- and 0.4% of placebo-treated patients. None of the cariprazine-treated patients had any liver damage.
In the short term studies, there were slightly greater mean increases in body weight in the cariprazine group compared to the placebo group; 1 kg and 0.3 kg, respectively. In the long term maintenance of effect study, there was no clinically relevant difference in change of body weight from baseline to end of treatment (1.1 kg for cariprazine and 0.9 kg for placebo). In the open-label phase of the study during 20 weeks cariprazine treatment 9.0% of patients developed potentially clinically significant (PCS) weight gain (defined as increase ≥ 7%) while during the double-blind phase, 9.8 % of the patients who continued with cariprazine treatment had PCS weight gain versus 7.1% of the patients who were randomized to placebo after the 20 week open-label cariprazine treatment. In the negative symptom study, the mean change of body weight was -0.3 kg for cariprazine and +0.6 kg for risperidone and PCS weight gain was observed in 6% of the cariprazine group while 7.4% of the risperidone group.
With cariprazine no QT interval prolongation was detected compared to placebo in a clinical trial designed to assess QT prolongation (see section 5.1). In other clinical trials, only a few, non-serious, QT-prolongations have been reported with cariprazine. During the long-term, open-label treatment period in, 3 patients (0.4%) had QTcB > 500 msec, one of whom also had QTcF > 500 msec. A > 60 msec increase from baseline was observed in 7 patients (1%) for QTcB and in 2 patients (0.3%) for QTcF. In the long-term , maintenance of effect study, during the open-label phase, > 60 msec increase of from baseline was observed in 12 patients (1.6%) for QTcB and in 4 patients (0.5%) for QTcF. During the double-blind treatment period, > 60 msec increases from baseline in QTcB were observed in 3 cariprazine-treated patients (3.1%) and 2 placebo-treated patients (2%).
Reporting of suspected adverse reactions
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system listed in Appendix V.
Accidental acute overdose (48 mg/day) was reported in one patient. This patient experienced orthostasis and sedation. The patient fully recovered the same day.
Management of overdose
Management of overdose should concentrate on supportive therapy including maintenance of an adequate airway, oxygenation and ventilation and management of symptoms. Cardiovascular monitoring should commence immediately, including continuous electrocardiographic monitoring for possible arrhythmias. In case of severe extrapyramidal symptoms, anticholinergic medicinal products should be administered. Since cariprazine is highly bound to plasma proteins, haemodialysis is unlikely to be useful in the management of overdose. Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.
There is no specific antidote to cariprazine.